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During the first presidencies of Vladimir Putin, who first took over as president-in-office on the last day of 1999, and U.S. President George W. Bush, the United States and Russia began to have serious differences of opinion. Under Putin, Russia became more confident in international affairs; Under Bush, after the September 11 attacks, the United States adopted an increasingly one-sided foreign policy. The U.S. trade deficit with Russia was $16.5 billion in 2019, an increase of 16.1% ($2.3 billion) over 2018. U.S. foreign direct investment in Russia (stocks) was $14.4 billion in 2019, an increase of 2.6% over 2018. U.S. direct investment in Russia is driven by production, wholesale trade and information services. The difficulties and risks that trade expansion entails for both parties are too visible, all too often mentioned.

It is far too easy to overlook the possibilities and value – again for both parties. If the elements of a new relationship do not emerge from the growing economic relationship, little will be lost, except that the possibilities are excluded. But the fundamental challenges are so great that we must try to develop common interests between the Soviet Union and the United States. Trade is the most obvious area in which it can work and compromises will be needed on both sides. The Soviets are more likely to respond to Western concerns about human rights in the context of the expansion of economic relations. We do not want to be in three or four years, if we regret the opportunities that have been missed in Soviet-American relations, as we see now, that was the case in the late 1950s. The seriousness of the Soviet interest in stabilizing relations with the United States should not be excluded. In Washington, positive decisions are needed. Congress and the new government should respond cautiously, but also with flexibility, foresight and more than a touch of audacity. – provides strong protection of intellectual property rights by reaffirming the obligations arising from the Paris Convention and the Universal Convention on Copyright, the obligation to respect the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, the protection of copyright for computer programmes and databases and the protection of sound recordings , granting product and process patent protection to almost all areas of technology and comprehensive coverage of trade secrets.

In mid-September 2013, the United States and Russia reached an agreement under which Syrian chemical weapons should be placed under international control and ultimately destroyed; President Obama welcomed the agreement,[58] which was soon enshrined in UN Security Council Resolution 2118. The Obama administration has been criticized for using the chemical weapons agreement as an ineffective substitute for Obama`s promised military actions in the event of the Syrian government`s use of chemical weapons. [59] According to George Robertson and many others, Obama`s inability to follow his 2013 “red line” and take promised military actions has seriously damaged his credibility and that of the United States with Putin and other world leaders. [60] [61] 1. The Trade Office is composed of one senior official and no more than three alternate officials and a number of staff agreed upon by mutual agreement, but if the number of approved civil servants and staff can be changed by mutual agreement between the two governments.